Understanding Glaucoma: Causes and Treatment

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, essential for good vision. This damage is often caused by abnormally high pressure in your eye. It is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60. However, blindness from glaucoma can often be prevented with early treatment.

Causes of Glaucoma

The exact cause of glaucoma isn’t always clear, but several factors contribute to its development:

  1. Increased Eye Pressure: The eye produces a fluid called aqueous humor, which flows through the front part of the eye. If this fluid is produced in excess or doesn’t drain properly, it leads to increased intraocular pressure, which can damage the optic nerve.
  1. Genetics: Family history plays a significant role. If your parents or grandparents had glaucoma, you are at a higher risk of developing the condition.
  1. Age: The risk of developing glaucoma increases as you age, particularly after the age of 60.
  1. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia, can increase the risk of developing glaucoma.
  1. Eye Injuries: Severe trauma to the eye can cause immediate or long-term glaucoma.
  1. Other Eye Conditions: Conditions like severe myopia (nearsightedness), eye tumors, and retinal detachment can also lead to glaucoma.

Types of Glaucoma

There are several types of glaucoma, each with different causes:

  1. Open-Angle Glaucoma: This is the most common type. It happens gradually as the eye doesn’t drain fluid as well as it should, leading to increased pressure.
  1. Angle-Closure Glaucoma: This type occurs when the iris bulges forward to narrow or block the drainage angle formed by the cornea and iris, leading to a sudden increase in eye pressure.
  1. Normal-Tension Glaucoma: Even when eye pressure is within the normal range, optic nerve damage can occur due to poor blood flow or a sensitive optic nerve.
  1. Congenital Glaucoma: Present at birth, this type is due to incorrect or incomplete development of the eye’s drainage canals during the prenatal period.

Symptoms of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is often called the “silent thief of sight” because it typically has no symptoms in its early stages. As the condition progresses, symptoms may include:

  • Patchy blind spots in your side (peripheral) or central vision.
  • Tunnel vision in the advanced stages.
  • Severe headache.
  • Eye pain.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Halos around lights.
  • Eye redness.

Treatment for Glaucoma

While the damage caused by glaucoma cannot be reversed, treatment can help slow or prevent vision loss, especially if the condition is caught early. Treatments include:

Medications: Prescription eye drops are the most common treatment. They reduce eye pressure by improving how fluid drains from your eye or decreasing the amount of fluid your eye makes.

Laser Therapy: Laser trabeculoplasty can help drain fluid from the eye for people with open-angle glaucoma. Laser iridotomy creates a tiny hole in the iris to allow fluid drainage in angle-closure glaucoma.

Surgery: Different surgical procedures can help lower eye pressure. These include trabeculectomy, where a surgeon creates an opening in the sclera (the white of the eye) and removes part of the eye’s drainage tubes.

Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS): These newer, less invasive techniques reduce eye pressure with fewer complications and quicker recovery times.


Understanding the causes and treatment options for glaucoma is crucial for maintaining eye health. If you’re at risk or experiencing symptoms, it’s essential to consult with a professional.
For those seeking glaucoma treatment in Zirakpur, or searching for a glaucoma doctor in Zirakpur, Dr. Jyoti Eye Hospital offers comprehensive care and advanced treatments tailored to your needs. For more details please contact us on:+91 98717 78178

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